Flora and Avifauna of Waiwhakareke and Horseshoe Lake margins

 

These working lists follow several field visits (1999-2005) to record the naturally occurring plants & birds at Waiwhakareke prior to restoration activities. Species which have been planted at the site since 2004 as part of the Waiwhakareke Natural Heritage Park restoration project are not included in the plant list or description.

 

Horseshoe Lake is a small peat lake within a catchment comprising mainly grazed pasture.  It has a narrow fringe of wetland vegetation around its margin; ranging from 0-2 metres in width on the north-western edge, to 6-8 metres on the south-eastern arm.  There is a zonation of vegetation relating to water depth; three main types are apparent.

 

Open water with waterlily

On the surface of the lake, at least four small patches of waterlily are present.  All of the patches observed are located close to the edge of the lake.

 

Baumea-Eleocharis-raupo reedland

Patches of Eleocharis sphacelata are scattered around the lake margin, occasionally dominant in the canopy.  An 8 m x 2 m patch of sphagnum moss is present near the eastern edge of the western arm of the lake; through which Paspalum distichum is growing.  This is present below Phormium tenax, Isachne globosa, Juncus gregiflorus, Juncus articulatus, Baumea teretifolia and grey willow.  The patch is bounded on the lakeside by Baumea articulata.

 

Grey willow/flax-raupo-Baumea treeland

A narrow fringe of Grey willow/flax-raupo-Baumea treeland occupies the landward zone.

In some places around the lake margin, where the willow treeland is absent, marginal herbs dominate.  Species here include Ranunculus, Polygonum, Juncus, Carex, Ludwigia palustris, and assorted pasture grasses.

 

Vascular Plant list

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

Acetosa (Rumex) acetosella*

dock, sheep’s sorrel

Baumea articulata

jointed twig-rush

Baumea rubiginosa

 

Baumea teretifolia

pakihi rush

Bidens frondosa*

beggars’ ticks

Blechnum novae-zelandiae

swamp kiokio

Callitriche stagnalis*

water starwort

Carex secta

purei

Carex virgata

purei

Centella uniflora

 

Cordyline australis

cabbage tree, ti kouka

Coronopus sp.*

cress

Crataegus monogyna*

hawthorne

Cyperus sp.*

 

Eleocharis acuta

club rush

Eleocharis pusilla

 

Eleocharis sphacelata

bamboo spike-sedge

Epilobium ciliatum*

willow-herb

Gonocarpus aggregatus

 

Holcus lanatus

Yorkshire fog

Hydrocotyle sp.

pennywort

Isachne globosa

 

Juncus articulatus*

 

Juncus effusus*

 

Juncus gregiflorus

 

Leontodon taraxacoides*

hawkbit

Leptospermum scoparium

manuka

Leycesteria formosa*

Himalayan honeysuckle

Lobelia anceps

 

Lolium sp.*

ryegrass

Lotus peduculatus*

lotus

Ludwigia palustris*

 

Lycopus europaeus*

gypsywort

Mentha sp.*

 

Nymphaea sp.*

water lily

Osmunda regalis*

royal fern

Paesia scaberula

ring/scented fern, matata

Paspalum distichum*

 

Pennisetum clandestinum*

kikuyu grass

Persicaria (Polygonum) persicaria*

willow weed

Phormium tenax

flax, harakeke

Plantago lanceolata*

narrow-leaved plantain

Plantago major*

broad-leaved plantain

Ranunculus repens*

buttercup

Rubus fruticosus*

blackberry

Salix cinerea*

grey willow

Salix fragilis*

crack willow

Solanum nigrum*

black nightshade

Sphagnum sp.

sphagnum moss

Stellaria graminea*

stitchwort

Taraxacum officinale*

dandelion

Typha orientalis

raupo

Ulex europaeus*

gorse

     

Bird list

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

Acridotheres tristis*

myna

Alauda arvensis*

skylark

Anas platyrhynchos*

mallard

Anas superciliosa

grey duck

Branta canadensis*

Canada goose

Carduelis carduelis*

goldfinch

Circus approximans

kahu, harrier

Cygnus atratus

black swan (and cygnets)

Hirundo tahitica

welcome swallow

Passer domesticus*

house sparrow

Phalacrocorax carbo

black shag

Porphyrio porphyrio

pukeko

Tadorna variegata

paradise shelduck (Putangitangi)

Turdus merula*

blackbird

Turdus philomelos*

songthrush

Zosterops lateralis

silver eye

 

* indicates introduced species

 

Descriptions and lists have been compiled from Downs, Clarkson and Beard (2000) and survey by E. Grove & B. Paris Nov. 2005.

 

Reference:

Downs T. M., Clarkson B. D. & Beard C. M. (2000) Key Ecological Sites of Hamilton City. CBER Contract Report No. 5. Prepared for Hamilton City Council. Centre for Biodiversity and Ecology Research, The University of Waikato, Hamilton.